What Are Civil Rights and How Do We Identify Them?

A group of African American students believes a college admissions test that is used by a public university discriminates against them. What legal standard would the courts use in deciding their case?

  1. rational basis test
  2. intermediate scrutiny
  3. strict scrutiny
  4. equal protection



The equal protection clause became part of the Constitution as a result of ________.

  1. affirmative action
  2. the Fourteenth Amendment
  3. intermediate scrutiny
  4. strict scrutiny

Which of the following types of discrimination would be subject to the rational basis test?

  1. A law that treats men differently from women
  2. An action by a state governor that treats Asian Americans differently from other citizens
  3. A law that treats whites differently from other citizens
  4. A law that treats 10-year-olds differently from 28-year-olds



What is the difference between civil rights and civil liberties?