Relief from the Chaos of Urban Life

Review Questions

Which of the following was a popular pastime for working-class urban dwellers?

  1. football games
  2. opera
  3. museums
  4. amusement parks



Which of the following was a disadvantage of machine politics?

  1. Immigrants did not have a voice.
  2. Taxpayers ultimately paid higher city taxes due to graft.
  3. Only wealthy parts of the city received timely responses.
  4. Citizens who voiced complaints were at risk for their safety.



In what way did education play a crucial role in the emergence of the middle class?


Better public education and the explosion of high schools meant that the children of the middle class were better educated than any previous generation. While college had previously been mostly restricted to children of the upper class, the creation of land-grant colleges made college available on a wide scale. The curricula at these new colleges matched the needs of the middle class, offering practical professional training rather than the liberal arts focus that the Ivy League schools embraced. Thus, children of the emerging middle class were able to access the education and training needed to secure their place in the professional class for generations to come.