New Voices for Women and African Americans

Review Questions

Which of the following was not a feature of Booker T. Washington’s strategy to improve the lives of African Americans?

  1. self-help
  2. accommodating/tolerating white racism
  3. immediate protests for equal rights
  4. learning new trades/skills



Who were the “Silent Sentinels”?

  1. a group of progressive African Americans who drafted the Declaration of Principles
  2. anti-suffrage women
  3. an offshoot of the Industrial Workers of the World
  4. suffragists who protested outside the White House



Describe the philosophy and strategies of the Niagara Movement. How did it differ from Washington’s way of thinking?


W. E. B. Du Bois sought to push for civil rights directly, through legal and political channels, drawing on the education and skills of the “talented tenth” to advance the Niagara Movement’s agenda. The movement’s Declaration of Principles called for immediate political, economic, and social equality for African Americans, including universal suffrage, education, and an end to the convict-lease system. This represented, in many ways, a rejection of Booker T. Washington’s advocacy of accommodation and self-improvement.