From War to Peace

Review Questions

What was Article X in the Treaty of Versailles?

  1. the “war guilt clause” that France required
  2. the agreement that all nations in the League of Nations would be rendered equal
  3. the Allies’ division of Germany’s holdings in Asia
  4. the refusal to allow Bolshevik Russia membership in the League of Nations

Hint:

B

Which of the following was not included in the Treaty of Versailles?

  1. extensive German reparations to be paid to the Allies
  2. a curtailment of German immigration to Allied nations
  3. France’s acquisition of disputed territory along the French-German border
  4. a mandate for Germany to accept responsibility for the war publicly

Hint:

B

What barriers did Wilson face in his efforts to ratify the Treaty of Versailles? What objections did those opposed to the treaty voice?

Hint:

In order to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, Wilson needed to ensure a two-thirds approval by the U.S. Senate, which meant overcoming the objections of a majority of Senate Republicans. Isolationists, most notably Henry Cabot Lodge, worried that the treaty’s Article X would oblige the United States to intervene extensively in international affairs. Interventionists, alternatively, argued that Article X would prevent the United States from using its military might to protect its interests abroad. Ultimately, Congress defeated both the originally worded treaty and a later version that included amendments. As a result, the United States never officially signed the treaty nor joined the League of Nations.