How Neurons Communicate

Free Response

How does myelin aid propagation of an action potential along an axon? How do the nodes of Ranvier help this process?

Hint:

Myelin prevents the leak of current from the axon. Nodes of Ranvier allow the action potential to be regenerated at specific points along the axon. They also save energy for the cell since voltage-gated ion channels and sodium-potassium transporters are not needed along myelinated portions of the axon.

What are the main steps in chemical neurotransmission?

Hint:

An action potential travels along an axon until it depolarizes the membrane at an axon terminal. Depolarization of the membrane causes voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to open and Ca2+ to enter the cell. The intracellular calcium influx causes synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter to fuse with the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. Depending on the specific neurotransmitter and postsynaptic receptor, this action can cause positive (excitatory postsynaptic potential) or negative (inhibitory postsynaptic potential) ions to enter the cell.