Pre-Clinical Medicine

Currently, faculty teaching two required pre-clinical courses at the Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine must cobble together resources from 14 different texts with a cost to students of over one thousand dollars. Dr. LeClair and her team eliminated the cost entirely by creating a single integrated, open resource that is aligned with course goals.

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Cardiovascular Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students
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Cardiovascular Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students is an undergraduate medical-level resource for foundational knowledge of common cardiovascular diseases, disorders and pathologies. This text is designed for a course pre-clinical undergraduate medical curriculum and it is aligned to USMLE(r) (United States Medical Licensing Examination) content guidelines. The text is meant to provide the essential information from these content areas in a concise format that would allow learner preparation to engage in an active classroom. Clinical correlates and additional application of content is intended to be provided in the classroom experience. The text assumes that the students will have an understanding of basic cardiovascular physiology that will be helpful to understand the content presented here. This resource should be assistive to the learner later in medical school and for exam preparation given the material is presented in a succinct manner, with a focus on high-yield concepts.

The 70-page text was created specifically for use by pre-clinical students at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and was based on faculty experience and peer review to guide development and hone important topics.

Available Formats
ISBN 978-1-957213-02-6 (PDF)
ISBN 978-1-957213-03-3 (ePub) https://doi.org/10.21061/cardiovascularpathophysiology
ISBN 978-1-957213-04-0 (print) https://www.amazon.com/Cardiovascular-Pathophysiology-Pre-Clinical-Students-Andrew/dp/1957213043
ISBN 978-1-957213-01-9 (Pressbooks)
https://pressbooks.lib.vt.edu/cardiovascularpathophysiology
Also available via LibreTexts: https://med.libretexts.org/@go/page/34347

How to Adopt this Book
Instructors reviewing, adopting, or adapting parts or the whole of the text are requested to register their interest at: https://bit.ly/interest-preclinical.

Instructors and subject matter experts interested in and sharing their original course materials relevant to pre-clinical education are requested to join the instructor portal at https://www.oercommons.org/groups/pre-clinical-resources/10133.

Features of this Book
1. Detailed learning objectives are provided at the beginning of each chapter;
2. High resolution, color contrasting figures illustrate concepts, relationships, and processes throughout;
3. Subsection summary tables
4. End of chapter lists provide additional sources of information; and
5. Accessibility features including structured heads and alternative-text provide access for readers accessing the work via a screen-reader.

Table of Contents
1. Arrhythmias
2. Heart Failure
3. Hypertension
4. Valvular Disease
5. Heart Sounds and Murmurs
6. Congenital Heart Disease
7. Ischemic Heart Disease

Suggested Citation
Binks, Andrew., (2022). Cardiovascular Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students, Roanoke: Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.21061/cardiovascularpathophysiology. Licensed with CC BY NC-SA 4.0.

About the Author
Dr. Andrew Binks is a cardiopulmonary physiologist who gained his BSc (Hons) in Physiological Sciences at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, then a MSc in Human and Applied Physiology from King’s College, London. He returned to Newcastle to do his PhD and study the underlying physiological mechanisms of dyspnea, the cardinal symptom of cardiopulmonary disease. He continued investigating dyspnea at Harvard School of Public Health as a postdoctoral fellow and then as a research scientist. After seven years at Harvard, Andrew took his first faculty position at the University of New England where he taught cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology to health profession and medical students. He continued to teach medical students their heart and lung physiology after moving to the University of South Carolina’s Medical School in Greenville where he also directed the school’s heart and lung pathophysiology courses. Andrew currently teaches heart and lung physiology and pathophysiology at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, directs the heart and lung pathophysiology course and has also served as the departmental director of faculty development.

In his two decades of teaching medical physiology, Andrew has regularly drawn upon his dyspnea research experience to generate an active, clinically focused approach to medical education. This book is part of that approach and supports students preparing for class with the basic information with the intention to apply and contextualize that information in a guided case-based classroom experience.

Andrew has published numerous peer-reviewed research papers and book chapters about dyspnea and about contemporary medical education. He has also given keynote presentations, faculty workshops and international webinars to promote effective medical education for the modern adult learner.

Accessibility Note
The University Libraries at Virginia Tech and Virginia Tech Publishing are committed to making its publications accessible in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The HTML (Pressbooks) and ePub versions of this book utilize header structures and include alternative text which allow for machine-readability.

Please report any errors at https://bit.ly/feedback-preclinical

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Binks Andrew
Date Added:
04/07/2022
Cell Biology, Genetics, and Biochemistry for Pre-Clinical Students
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Cell Biology, Genetics, and Biochemistry for Pre-Clinical Students (2021) is an undergraduate medical-level resource for foundational knowledge across the disciplines of genetics, cell biology and biochemistry. This USMLE-aligned text is designed for a first-year undergraduate medical course that is delivered typically before students start to explore systems physiology and pathophysiology. The text is meant to provide the essential information from these content areas in a concise format that would allow learner preparation to engage in an active classroom. Clinical correlates and additional application of content is intended to be provided in the classroom experience. The text assumes that the students will have completed medical school prerequisites (including the MCAT) in which they will have been introduced to the most fundamental concepts of biology and chemistry that are essential to understand the content presented here. This resource should be assistive to the learner later in medical school and for exam preparation given the material is presented in a succinct manner, with a focus on high-yield concepts.

The 276-page text was created specifically for use by pre-clinical students at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and was based on faculty experience and peer review to guide development and hone important topics.

Available Formats
978-1-949373-42-4 (PDF)
978-1-949373-43-1 (ePub) https://doi.org/10.21061/cellbio
978-1-949373-41-7 (Pressbooks) https://pressbooks.lib.vt.edu/cellbio
Also available via LibreTexts: https://med.libretexts.org/@go/page/37584
Print now available https://www.amazon.com/dp/194937341X

How to Adopt this Book
Instructors reviewing, adopting, or adapting parts or the whole of the text are requested to register their interest at: https://bit.ly/interest-preclinical.

Instructors and subject matter experts interested in and sharing their original course materials relevant to pre-clinical education are requested to join the instructor portal at https://www.oercommons.org/groups/pre-clinical-resources/10133.

Features of this Book
1. Detailed learning objectives are provided at the beginning of each subsection
2. High resolution, color contrasting figures illustrate concepts, relationships, and processes throughout
3. Summary tables display detailed information
4. End of chapter lists provide additional sources of information
5. Accessibility features including structured heads and alternative-text provide access for readers accessing the work via a screen-reader

Table of Contents
1. Biochemistry basics
2. Basic laboratory measurements
3. Fed and fasted state
4. Fuel for now
5. Fuel for later
6. Lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol synthesis
7. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), purine and pyrimidine metabolism
8. Amino acid metabolism and heritable disorders of degradation
9. Disorders of monosaccharide metabolism and other metabolic conditions
10. Genes, genomes, and DNA
11. Transcription and translation
12. Gene regulation and the cell cycle
13. Human genetics
14. Linkage studies, pedigrees, and population genetics
15. Cellular signaling
16. Plasma membrane
17. Cytoplasmic membranes
18. Cytoskeleton
19. Extracellular matrix

Suggested Citation
LeClair, Renée J., (2021). Cell Biology, Genetics, and Biochemistry for Pre-Clinical Students, Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Tech Publishing. https://doi.org/10.21061/cellbio. Licensed with CC BY NC-SA 4.0.

About the Author
Renée J. LeClair is an Associate Professor in the Department of Basic Science Education at the Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, where her role is to engage activities that support the departmental mission of developing an integrated medical experience using evidence-based delivery grounded in the science of learning. She received a Ph.D. at Rice University and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Maine Medical Center Research Institute in vascular biology. She became involved in medical education, curricular renovation, and implementation of innovative teaching methods during her first faculty appointment, at the University of New England, College of Osteopathic Medicine. In 2013, she moved to a new medical school, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Greenville. The opportunities afforded by joining a new program and serving as the Chair of the Curriculum committee provided a blank slate for creative curricular development and close involvement with the accreditation process. During her tenure she developed and directed a team-taught student-centered undergraduate medical course that integrated the scientific and clinical sciences to assess all six-core competencies of medical education.

Accessibility Note
The University Libraries at Virginia Tech and Virginia Tech Publishing are committed to making its publications accessible in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The HTML (Pressbooks) and ePub versions of this book utilize header structures and include alternative text which allow for machine-readability.

Please report any errors at https://bit.ly/feedback-preclinical

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Life Science
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Renee LeClair
Date Added:
12/06/2021
Neuroscience for Pre-Clinical Students
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Neuroscience for Pre-Clinical Students covers neuroenergetics, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and selected amino acid metabolism and degradation. This USMLE-aligned text is designed for a first-year undergraduate medical course and is meant to provide the essential biochemical information from these content areas in a concise format to enable students to engage in an active classroom. Hence, it does not cover neurophysiology and neuroanatomy; and clinical correlates and additional application of content are intended to be provided in the classroom experience. The text assumes that the students will have completed medical school prerequisites (including the MCAT) in which they will have been introduced to the most fundamental concepts of biology and chemistry that are essential to understand the content presented here. With its focus on high-yield concepts, this resource will assist the learner later in medical school and for exam preparation.

The 49-page text was created specifically for use by pre-clinical students at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and was based on faculty experience and peer review to guide development and hone important topics.

Available Formats
ISBN 978-1-949373-80-6 (PDF)
ISBN 978-1-949373-81-3 (ePub) https://doi.org/10.21061/neuroscience
ISBN 978-1-949373-84-4 (print) https://www.amazon.com/Neuroscience-Pre-Clinical-Students-REN%C3%89E-LECLAIR
ISBN 978-1-949373-82-0 (Pressbooks) https://pressbooks.lib.vt.edu/neuroscience
Also available via LibreTexts: https://med.libretexts.org/@go/page/35685

How to Adopt this Book
Instructors reviewing, adopting, or adapting parts or the whole of the text are requested to register their interest at: https://bit.ly/interest-preclinical.

Instructors and subject matter experts interested in and sharing their original course materials relevant to pre-clinical education are requested to join the instructor portal at https://www.oercommons.org/groups/pre-clinical-resources/10133.

Features of this Book
1. Detailed learning objectives are provided at the beginning of each subsection;
2. High resolution, color contrasting figures illustrate concepts, relationships, and processes throughout;
3. Summary tables display detailed information;
4. End of chapter lists provide additional sources of information; and
5. Accessibility features including structured heads and alternative-text provide access for readers accessing the work via a screen-reader.

Table of Contents
1. Neuron and astrocyte metabolism
2. Neurotransmitters — ACh, glutamate, GABA, and glycine
3. Neuropeptides and unconventional neurotransmitters
4. Amino acid metabolism and specialized products

Suggested Citation
LeClair, Renée J., (2022). Neuroscience for Pre-Clinical Students, Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Tech Publishing. https://doi.org/10.21061/neuroscience. Licensed with CC BY NC-SA 4.0.

About the Author
Renée J. LeClair is an Associate Professor in the Department of Basic Science Education at the Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, where her role is to engage activities that support the departmental mission of developing an integrated medical experience using evidence-based delivery grounded in the science of learning. She received a Ph.D. at Rice University and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Maine Medical Center Research Institute in vascular biology. She became involved in medical education, curricular renovation, and implementation of innovative teaching methods during her first faculty appointment, at the University of New England, College of Osteopathic Medicine. In 2013, she moved to a new medical school, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Greenville. The opportunities afforded by joining a new program and serving as the Chair of the Curriculum committee provided a blank slate for creative curricular development and close involvement with the accreditation process. During her tenure she developed and directed a team-taught student-centered undergraduate medical course that integrated the scientific and clinical sciences to assess all six-core competencies of medical education.

Accessibility Note
The University Libraries at Virginia Tech and Virginia Tech Publishing are committed to making its publications accessible in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The HTML (Pressbooks) and ePub versions of this book utilize header structures and include alternative text which allow for machine-readability.

Please report any errors at https://bit.ly/feedback-preclinical

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Leclair Renee
Date Added:
02/02/2022
Pulmonary Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Pulmonary Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students is an undergraduate medical-level resource for foundational knowledge of pulmonary pathophysiology. This text is designed for a pre-clinical undergraduate medical curriculum and is aligned to USMLE(r) (United States Medical Licensing Examination) content guidelines. The text is meant to provide the essential information in a concise format that would allow learner preparation to engage in an active classroom. Clinical correlates and additional application of content is intended to be provided in the classroom experience. The text assumes that the students will have an understanding of basic pulmonary physiology that will be helpful to understand the content presented here. This resource should be assistive to the learner later in medical school and for exam preparation given the material is presented in a succinct manner, with a focus on high-yield concepts.

The 82-page text was created specifically for use by pre-clinical students at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and was based on faculty experience and peer review to guide development and hone important topics.

Available Formats
ISBN 978-1-957213-08-8 (PDF)
ISBN 978-1-957213-11-8 (ePub) https://doi.org/10.21061/pulmonarypathophysiology
ISBN 978-1-957213-09-5 (print) https://www.amazon.com/Pulmonary-Pathophysiology-Pre-Clinical-Students-Andrew/dp/1957213094
ISBN 978-1-957213-10-1 (Pressbooks)
https://pressbooks.lib.vt.edu/pulmonarypathophysiology
Also available via LibreTexts: https://med.libretexts.org/@go/page/34444

How to Adopt this Book
Instructors reviewing, adopting, or adapting parts or the whole of the text are requested to register their interest at: https://bit.ly/interest-preclinical.

Instructors and subject matter experts interested in and sharing their original course materials relevant to pre-clinical education are requested to join the instructor portal at https://www.oercommons.org/groups/pre-clinical-resources/10133.

Features of this Book
1. Detailed learning objectives are provided at the beginning of each chapter;
2. High resolution, color contrasting figures illustrate concepts, relationships, and processes throughout;
3. Subsection summary tables
4. End of chapter lists provide additional sources of information; and
5. Accessibility features including structured heads and alternative-text provide access for readers accessing the work via a screen-reader.

Table of Contents
1: The Obstructive Lung Diseases
2: Upper Airway Infections
3: Lower Airway Infections
4: The Restrictive Lung Diseases
5: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
6: Lung Cancer
7: Pulmonary Embolism
8: Immunological Diseases of the Lung
9: Pleural Disease

Suggested Citation
Binks, Andrew., (2022). Pulmonary Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students, Roanoke: Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.21061/pulmonarypathophysiology. Licensed with CC BY NC-SA 4.0.

Other Titles in This Series
LeClair, R., (2021) Cell Biology, Genetics, and Biochemistry for Pre-Clinical Students
LeClair, R., (2022) Neuroscience for Pre-Clinical Students
Binks, A., (2022) Cardiovascular Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students
Binks, A., (2022) Pulmonary Physiology for Pre-Clinical Students 

About the Author
Dr. Andrew Binks is a cardiopulmonary physiologist who gained his BSc (Hons) in Physiological Sciences at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, then a MSc in Human and Applied Physiology from King’s College, London. He returned to Newcastle to do his PhD and study the underlying physiological mechanisms of dyspnea, the cardinal symptom of cardiopulmonary disease. He continued investigating dyspnea at Harvard School of Public Health as a postdoctoral fellow and then as a research scientist. After seven years at Harvard, Andrew took his first faculty position at the University of New England where he taught cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology to health profession and medical students. He continued to teach medical students their heart and lung physiology after moving to the University of South Carolina’s Medical School in Greenville where he also directed the school’s heart and lung pathophysiology courses. Andrew currently teaches heart and lung physiology and pathophysiology at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, directs the heart and lung pathophysiology course and has also served as the departmental director of faculty development.

In his two decades of teaching medical physiology, Andrew has regularly drawn upon his dyspnea research experience to generate an active, clinically focused approach to medical education. This book is part of that approach and supports students preparing for class with the basic information with the intention to apply and contextualize that information in a guided case-based classroom experience.

Andrew has published numerous peer-reviewed research papers and book chapters about dyspnea and about contemporary medical education. He has also given keynote presentations, faculty workshops and international webinars to promote effective medical education for the modern adult learner.

Accessibility Note
The University Libraries at Virginia Tech and Virginia Tech Publishing are committed to making its publications accessible in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The HTML (Pressbooks) and ePub versions of this book utilize header structures and include alternative text which allow for machine-readability.

Please report any errors at https://bit.ly/feedback-preclinical
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10919/105411

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Binks Andrew
Date Added:
08/03/2022
Pulmonary Physiology for Pre-Clinical Students
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

Pulmonary Physiology for Pre-Clinical Students is an undergraduate medical-level resource for foundational knowledge of pulmonary physiology. This text is designed for a pre-clinical medical curriculum and is aligned to USMLE(r) (United States Medical Licensing Examination) content guidelines. The text is meant to provide the essential information in a concise format that would allow learner preparation to engage in an active classroom. Clinical correlates and additional application of content is intended to be provided in the classroom experience. This resource should be assistive to the learner later in medical school and for exam preparation given the material is presented in a succinct manner, with a focus on high-yield concepts.

The 101-page text was created specifically for use by pre-clinical students at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and was based on faculty experience and peer review to guide development and hone important topics.

Available Formats
ISBN 978-1-957213-12-5 (PDF)
ISBN 978-1-957213-14-9 (ePub) https://doi.org/10.21061/pulmonaryphysiology
ISBN 978-1-957213-13-2 (print) https://www.amazon.com/Pulmonary-Physiology-Pre-Clinical-Students-Andrew/dp/1957213132
ISBN 978-1-957213-15-6 (Pressbooks)
https://pressbooks.lib.vt.edu/pulmonaryphysiology
Also available via LibreTexts: https://med.libretexts.org/@go/page/34378

How to Adopt this Book
Instructors reviewing, adopting, or adapting parts or the whole of the text are requested to register their interest at: https://bit.ly/interest-preclinical.

Instructors and subject matter experts interested in and sharing their original course materials relevant to pre-clinical education are requested to join the instructor portal at https://www.oercommons.org/groups/pre-clinical-resources/10133.

Features of this Book
1. Detailed learning objectives are provided at the beginning of each chapter;
2. High resolution, color contrasting figures illustrate concepts, relationships, and processes throughout;
3. Subsection summary tables
4. End of chapter lists provide additional sources of information; and
5. Accessibility features including structured heads and alternative-text provide access for readers accessing the work via a screen-reader.

Table of Contents
1: Fundamentals
2: Mechanics of the Lungs
3: Lung Volumes and Compliance
4: Distribution of Ventilation
5: Airflow and Airway Resistance
6: Dynamic Airway Compression
7: Fundamentals of Gas Exchange
8: Perfusion and Diffusion Limitations in Gas Exchange
9: Pulmonary Blood Flow
10: Pulmonary Capillaries and Non-Ventilatory Function
11: Arterial CO₂ and Ph
12: Alkalosis and Acidosis
13: Ventilation and Perfusion
14: The Alveolar Gas Equation and Alveolar-Arterial PO₂ Difference
15: Pulmonary Shunts
16: Gas Transport
17: Control of Breathing
18: Dyspnea

Suggested Citation
Binks, Andrew., (2022). Pulmonary Physiology for Pre-Clinical Students, Roanoke: Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.21061/pulmonaryphysiology. Licensed with CC BY NC-SA 4.0.

Other Titles in This Series
LeClair, R., (2021) Cell Biology, Genetics, and Biochemistry for Pre-Clinical Students
LeClair, R., (2022) Neuroscience for Pre-Clinical Students
Binks, A., (2022) Cardiovascular Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students
Binks, A., (2022) Pulmonary Pathophysiology for Pre-Clinical Students 

About the Author
Dr. Andrew Binks is a cardiopulmonary physiologist who gained his BSc (Hons) in Physiological Sciences at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, then a MSc in Human and Applied Physiology from King’s College, London. He returned to Newcastle to do his PhD and study the underlying physiological mechanisms of dyspnea, the cardinal symptom of cardiopulmonary disease. He continued investigating dyspnea at Harvard School of Public Health as a postdoctoral fellow and then as a research scientist. After seven years at Harvard, Andrew took his first faculty position at the University of New England where he taught cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology to health profession and medical students. He continued to teach medical students their heart and lung physiology after moving to the University of South Carolina’s Medical School in Greenville where he also directed the school’s heart and lung pathophysiology courses. Andrew currently teaches heart and lung physiology and pathophysiology at Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, directs the heart and lung pathophysiology course and has also served as the departmental director of faculty development.

In his two decades of teaching medical physiology, Andrew has regularly drawn upon his dyspnea research experience to generate an active, clinically focused approach to medical education. This book is part of that approach and supports students preparing for class with the basic information with the intention to apply and contextualize that information in a guided case-based classroom experience.

Andrew has published numerous peer-reviewed research papers and book chapters about dyspnea and about contemporary medical education. He has also given keynote presentations, faculty workshops and international webinars to promote effective medical education for the modern adult learner.

Accessibility Note
The University Libraries at Virginia Tech and Virginia Tech Publishing are committed to making its publications accessible in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The HTML (Pressbooks) and ePub versions of this book utilize header structures and include alternative text which allow for machine-readability.

Please report any errors at https://bit.ly/feedback-preclinical
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10919/105410

Subject:
Health, Medicine and Nursing
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Virginia Tech
Provider Set:
VTech Works
Author:
Binks Andrew
Date Added:
08/03/2022