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Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights
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This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best moral reasons.

This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best moral reasons.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Nathan Nobis
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
Rating

This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best moral reasons.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Nathan Nobis
Date Added:
12/05/2019
Arguing Using Critical Thinking
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CC BY-NC-SA
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There is a quote that has been passed down many years and is most recently accounted to P.T. Barnum, “There is a sucker born every minute.” Are you that sucker? If you were, would you like to be “reborn?” The goal of this book is to help you through that “birthing” process. Critical thinking and standing up for your ideas and making decisions are important in both your personal and professional life. How good are we at making the decision to marry? According to the Centers for Disease Control, there is one divorce in America every 36 seconds. That is nearly 2,400 every day. And professionally, the Wall Street Journal predicts the average person will have 7 careers in their lifetime. Critical thinking skills are crucial.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
LibreTexts
Author:
Jim Marteney
Date Added:
11/18/2021
A Concise Introduction to Logic
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CC BY-NC-SA
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A Concise Introduction to Logic is an introduction to formal logic suitable for undergraduates taking a general education course in logic or critical thinking, and is accessible and useful to any interested in gaining a basic understanding of logic. This text takes the unique approach of teaching logic through intellectual history; the author uses examples from important and celebrated arguments in philosophy to illustrate logical principles. The text also includes a basic introduction to findings of advanced logic. As indicators of where the student could go next with logic, the book closes with an overview of advanced topics, such as the axiomatic method, set theory, Peano arithmetic, and modal logic. Throughout, the text uses brief, concise chapters that readers will find easy to read and to review.

Reviews available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/a-concise-introduction-to-logic

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
State University of New York
Provider Set:
OpenSUNY Textbooks
Author:
Craig DeLancey
Date Added:
03/27/2017
A Concise Introduction to Logic
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CC BY-NC-SA
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A Concise Introduction to Logic is an introduction to formal logic suitable for undergraduates taking a general education course in logic or critical thinking, and is accessible and useful to any interested in gaining a basic understanding of logic. This text takes the unique approach of teaching logic through intellectual history; the author uses examples from important and celebrated arguments in philosophy to illustrate logical principles. The text also includes a basic introduction to findings of advanced logic. As indicators of where the student could go next with logic, the book closes with an overview of advanced topics, such as the axiomatic method, set theory, Peano arithmetic, and modal logic. Throughout, the text uses brief, concise chapters that readers will find easy to read and to review.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
State University of New York
Provider Set:
Milne Open Textbooks
Author:
Craig DeLancey
Date Added:
03/27/2017
Ethics and Public Policy
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This course will provide the student with an overview of the role that ethical, cultural, religious, and moral principles play in public policy. The course will introduce the student to common themes found in the foundational theories of ethics and morality in politics such as justice, equality, fairness, individual liberty, free enterprise, charity, fundamental human rights, and minimizing harm to others. These themes are integrated into various decision-making models that you will learn about. Students will examine five types of decision frameworks used to make and implement public policy, as well as rationales used to justify inequitable impact and outcomes of policies. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: explain how personal morality and ethics impact the policymaking process; discuss various ethical frameworks used to resolve policy dilemmas; identify statutes, ethical codes, and legal opinions that define the normative parameters of key domestic and international policy issues; assess the impact that public interest groups have on policymaking and execution of policies. (Political Science 401)

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Assessment
Full Course
Lecture
Lecture Notes
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
06/14/2019
Ethics for A-Level
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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What does pleasure have to do with morality? What role, if any, should intuition have in the formation of moral theory? If something is ‘simulated', can it be immoral?

This accessible and wide-ranging textbook explores these questions and many more. Key ideas in the fields of normative ethics, metaethics and applied ethics are explained rigorously and systematically, with a vivid writing style that enlivens the topics with energy and wit. Individual theories are discussed in detail in the first part of the book, before these positions are applied to a wide range of contemporary situations including business ethics, sexual ethics, and the acceptability of eating animals. A wealth of real-life examples, set out with depth and care, illuminate the complexities of different ethical approaches while conveying their modern-day relevance.

This concise and highly engaging resource is tailored to the Ethics components of AQA Philosophy and OCR Religious Studies, with a clear and practical layout that includes end-of-chapter summaries, key terms, and common mistakes to avoid. It should also be of practical use for those teaching Philosophy as part of the International Baccalaureate.

Ethics for A-Level is of particular value to students and teachers, but Fisher and Dimmock's precise and scholarly approach will appeal to anyone seeking a rigorous and lively introduction to the challenging subject of ethics.

Reviews available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/ethics-for-a-level

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Open Book Publishers
Author:
Andrew Fisher
Mark Dimmock
Date Added:
12/05/2019
Ethics in America
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
Rating

This series uses the Socratic method to build analytical skills and examine ethical questions. The programs aim to sharpen moral reasoning without favoring a particular position by exploring ethical dilemmas in legal, political, medical, corporate, and military arenas. Panelists include Antonin Scalia, Faye Wattleton, and Peter Jennings. A video instructional series on ethics for college and high school classrooms and adult learners; 10 one-hour video programs, audiocassettes.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
Annenberg Learner
Date Added:
01/01/1989
Form and Content: An Introduction to Formal Logic
Only Sharing Permitted
CC BY-NC-ND
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Derek Turner, Professor of Philosophy, has written an introductory logic textbook that students at Connecticut College, or anywhere, can access for free. The book differs from other standard logic textbooks in its reliance on fun, low-stakes examples involving dinosaurs, a dog and his friends, etc.

Outline
The Logic Sheet
Getting Rid of Content
§1. Modus ponens
§2. Abstraction and Form
§3. Use and Mention
§4. Statements, Statement Forms, and Bivalence
§5. Statements, Propositions, and Truth
§6. Modus ponens arguments in Langerese: Syntax
§7. Modus ponens arguments in Langerese: Semantics
§8. The Bed of Procrustes
Logical Operators
§9. The Counter-intuitiveness of the Arrow
§10. Conjunction and Material Equivalence
§11. Translating Conjunctions
§12. Non-Truth Functional Operators
§13. Negation and Disjunction
§14. Unless
§15. Necessary vs. Sufficient Conditions
§16. Translating Conditional and Biconditional Statements
§17. Fun with Longer Statements
Truth Tables
§18. Calculating Truth Values for Statements
§19. Tautologies
§20. Two Ways of Constructing Truth Tables
§21. Human Limitations
§22. Short Truth Tables for Tautologies
§23. The Anti-Laws of Logic
§24. Analyticity
§25. Testing for Logical Equivalence
§26. Quirks of Logical Equivalence
§27. Contradiction
§28. Logical Consistency
§29. How Many Logical Operators Do We Need?
Validity and Soundness
§30. Validity
§31. Validity’s Quirks
§32. Deductive Arguments
§33. Soundness
§34. Abbreviated Truth Tables for Validity
§35. Inductive Arguments
§36. Translation and Testing for Validity
§37. Logic, Rhetoric, and the Principle of Charity
How to Prove Stuff
§38. Natural Deduction
§39. Introduction Rules
§40. Other Inference Rules: HS and CD
§41. Conditional Proof
§42. Using Conditional Proof to Prove Tautologies
§43. Logical Equivalence and Replacement Rules
§44. Formalizing Philosophical Arguments
§45. Reductio Ad Absurdum
§46. Other Valid Arguments
Predicates and Quantifiers
§47. Chrysippus’s dog
§48. Subjects and Predicates
§49. Relations
§50. Individual Constants and Variables
§51. Interpreting the Quantifiers
§52. Modus ponens with the Universal Quantifier
§53. Modus ponens with the Existential Quantifier
§54. Putting Langerese to Work
§55. Quantifiers and Negation
§56. Translation Holism
§57. Some Technicalities
§58. Identity
§59. Form and Content: The Value of Formal Logic
Technical Definitions

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Derek D. Turner
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Fundamental Methods of Logic
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Fundamental Methods of Logic is suitable for a one-semester introduction to logic/critical reasoning course. It covers a variety of topics at an introductory level. Chapter One introduces basic notions, such as arguments and explanations, validity and soundness, deductive and inductive reasoning; it also covers basic analytical techniques, such as distinguishing premises from conclusions and diagramming arguments. Chapter Two discusses informal logical fallacies. Chapters Three and Four concern deductive logic, introducing the basics of Aristotelian and Sentential Logic, respectively. Chapter Five deals with analogical and causal reasoning, including a discussion of Mill's Methods. Chapter Six covers basic probability calculations, Bayesian inference, fundamental statistical concepts and techniques, and common statistical fallacies.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Author:
Matthew Knachel
Date Added:
09/08/2017
General Philosophy Lectures
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A series of lectures delivered by Peter Millican to first-year philosophy students at the University of Oxford. The lectures comprise of the 8-week General Philosophy course, delivered to first year undergraduates. These lectures aim to provide a thorough introduction to many philosophical topics and to get students and others interested in thinking about key areas of philosophy. Taking a chronological view of the history of philosophy, each lecture is split into 3 or 4 sections which outline a particular philosophical problem and how different philosophers have attempted to resolve the issue. Individuals interested in the 'big' questions about life such as how we perceive the world, who we are in the world and whether we are free to act will find this series informative, comprehensive and accessible.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Full Course
Lecture
Provider:
University of Oxford
Provider Set:
University of Oxford Podcasts
Author:
Peter Millican
Date Added:
02/19/2010
A Guide to Good Reasoning: Cultivating Intellectual Virtues - Second edition, revised and updated
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CC BY-NC
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A Guide to Good Reasoning has been described by reviewers as “far superior to any other critical reasoning text.” It shows with both wit and philosophical care how students can become good at everyday reasoning. It starts with attitude—with alertness to judgmental heuristics and with the cultivation of intellectual virtues. From there it develops a system for skillfully clarifying and evaluating arguments, according to four standards—whether the premises fit the world, whether the conclusion fits the premises, whether the argument fits the conversation, and whether it is possible to tell.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Minnesota Libraries Publishing Project
Author:
David Carl Wilson
Date Added:
11/18/2021
An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments
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This book is aimed at newcomers to the field of logical reasoning, particularly those who, to borrow a phrase from Pascal, are so made that they understand best through visuals. I have selected a small set of common errors in reasoning and visualized them using memorable illustrations that are supplemented with lots of examples. The hope is that the reader will learn from these pages some of the most common pitfalls in arguments and be able to identify and avoid them in practice.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Reading
Author:
Ali Almossawi
Date Added:
03/31/2021
Inferring and Explaining
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating

Inferring and Explaining is a book in practical epistemology. It examines the notion of evidence and assumes that good evidence is the essence of rational thinking. Evidence is the cornerstone of the natural, social, and behavioral sciences. But it is equally central to almost all academic pursuits and, perhaps most importantly, to the basic need to live an intelligent and reflective life.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Portland State University
Provider Set:
PDXOpen
Author:
Jeffery L. Johnson
Date Added:
12/05/2019
The Intelligent Troglodyte's Guide to Plato's Republic
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating

The Republic of Plato is one of the classic gateway texts into the study and practice of philosophy, and it is just the sort of book that has been able to arrest and redirect lives. How it has been able to do this, and whether or not it will be able to do this in your own case, is something you can only discover for yourself. The present guidebook aims to help a person get fairly deep, fairly quickly, into the project. It divides the dialogue into 96 sections and provides commentary on each section as well as questions for reflection and exploration. It is organized with a table of contents and is stitched together with a system of navigating bookmarks. Links to external sites such as the Perseus Classical Library are used throughout. This book is suitable for college courses or independent study.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Reading
Student Guide
Textbook
Provider:
Fort Hays State University
Provider Set:
FHSU Scholars Repository
Author:
Douglas Drabkin
Date Added:
01/01/2016
An Introduction to Formal Logic
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CC BY-SA
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forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading.

This books treats symbolization, formal semantics, and proof theory for each language. The discussion of formal semantics is more direct than in many introductory texts. Although forall x does not contain proofs of soundness and completeness, it lays the groundwork for understanding why these are things that need to be proven.

Throughout the book, I have tried to highlight the choices involved in developing sentential and predicate logic. Students should realize that these two are not the only possible formal languages. In translating to a formal language, we simplify and profit in clarity. The simplification comes at a cost, and different formal languages are suited to translating different parts of natural language.

The book is designed to provide a semester's worth of material for an introductory college course. It would be possible to use the book only for sentential logic, by skipping chapters 4-5 and parts of chapter 6.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: What is logic?
Chapter 2: Sentential logic
Chapter 3: Truth tables
Chapter 4: Quantified logic
Chapter 5: Formal semantics
Chapter 6: Proofs

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
P.D. Magnus
Date Added:
12/08/2020
An Introduction to Formal Logic
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading.

This books treats symbolization, formal semantics, and proof theory for each language. The discussion of formal semantics is more direct than in many introductory texts. Although forall x does not contain proofs of soundness and completeness, it lays the groundwork for understanding why these are things that need to be proven.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
forall x
Author:
P.D. Magnus
Date Added:
01/01/2012
Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating

This is an introductory textbook in logic and critical thinking. The goal of the textbook is to provide the reader with a set of tools and skills that will enable them to identify and evaluate arguments. The book is intended for an introductory course that covers both formal and informal logic. As such, it is not a formal logic textbook, but is closer to what one would find marketed as a critical thinking textbook. Downloadable as a pdf file.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Lansing Community College
Author:
Matthew J. Van Cleave
Date Added:
01/04/2016
Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating

This is an introductory textbook in logic and critical thinking. The goal of the textbook is to provide the reader with a set of tools and skills that will enable them to identify and evaluate arguments. The book is intended for an introductory course that covers both formal and informal logic. As such, it is not a formal logic textbook, but is closer to what one would find marketed as a critical thinking textbook. Downloadable as a pdf file.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Lansing Community College
Author:
Matthew J. Van Cleave
Date Added:
01/04/2016