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Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights
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This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best moral reasons.

This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best moral reasons.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Nathan Nobis
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-SA
Rating

This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best moral reasons.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Nathan Nobis
Date Added:
12/05/2019
A Concise Introduction to Logic
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A Concise Introduction to Logic is an introduction to formal logic suitable for undergraduates taking a general education course in logic or critical thinking, and is accessible and useful to any interested in gaining a basic understanding of logic. This text takes the unique approach of teaching logic through intellectual history; the author uses examples from important and celebrated arguments in philosophy to illustrate logical principles. The text also includes a basic introduction to findings of advanced logic. As indicators of where the student could go next with logic, the book closes with an overview of advanced topics, such as the axiomatic method, set theory, Peano arithmetic, and modal logic. Throughout, the text uses brief, concise chapters that readers will find easy to read and to review.

Reviews available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/a-concise-introduction-to-logic

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
State University of New York
Provider Set:
OpenSUNY Textbooks
Author:
Craig DeLancey
Date Added:
03/27/2017
Ethics and Public Policy
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating

This course will provide the student with an overview of the role that ethical, cultural, religious, and moral principles play in public policy. The course will introduce the student to common themes found in the foundational theories of ethics and morality in politics such as justice, equality, fairness, individual liberty, free enterprise, charity, fundamental human rights, and minimizing harm to others. These themes are integrated into various decision-making models that you will learn about. Students will examine five types of decision frameworks used to make and implement public policy, as well as rationales used to justify inequitable impact and outcomes of policies. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: explain how personal morality and ethics impact the policymaking process; discuss various ethical frameworks used to resolve policy dilemmas; identify statutes, ethical codes, and legal opinions that define the normative parameters of key domestic and international policy issues; assess the impact that public interest groups have on policymaking and execution of policies. (Political Science 401)

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Assessment
Full Course
Lecture
Lecture Notes
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
06/14/2019
Ethics for A-Level
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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What does pleasure have to do with morality? What role, if any, should intuition have in the formation of moral theory? If something is ‘simulated', can it be immoral?

This accessible and wide-ranging textbook explores these questions and many more. Key ideas in the fields of normative ethics, metaethics and applied ethics are explained rigorously and systematically, with a vivid writing style that enlivens the topics with energy and wit. Individual theories are discussed in detail in the first part of the book, before these positions are applied to a wide range of contemporary situations including business ethics, sexual ethics, and the acceptability of eating animals. A wealth of real-life examples, set out with depth and care, illuminate the complexities of different ethical approaches while conveying their modern-day relevance.

This concise and highly engaging resource is tailored to the Ethics components of AQA Philosophy and OCR Religious Studies, with a clear and practical layout that includes end-of-chapter summaries, key terms, and common mistakes to avoid. It should also be of practical use for those teaching Philosophy as part of the International Baccalaureate.

Ethics for A-Level is of particular value to students and teachers, but Fisher and Dimmock's precise and scholarly approach will appeal to anyone seeking a rigorous and lively introduction to the challenging subject of ethics.

Reviews available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/ethics-for-a-level

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Open Book Publishers
Author:
Andrew Fisher
Mark Dimmock
Date Added:
12/05/2019
Ethics in America
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
Rating

This series uses the Socratic method to build analytical skills and examine ethical questions. The programs aim to sharpen moral reasoning without favoring a particular position by exploring ethical dilemmas in legal, political, medical, corporate, and military arenas. Panelists include Antonin Scalia, Faye Wattleton, and Peter Jennings. A video instructional series on ethics for college and high school classrooms and adult learners; 10 one-hour video programs, audiocassettes.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
Annenberg Learner
Date Added:
01/01/1989
Form and Content: An Introduction to Formal Logic
Only Sharing Permitted
CC BY-NC-ND
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Derek Turner, Professor of Philosophy, has written an introductory logic textbook that students at Connecticut College, or anywhere, can access for free. The book differs from other standard logic textbooks in its reliance on fun, low-stakes examples involving dinosaurs, a dog and his friends, etc.

Outline
The Logic Sheet
Getting Rid of Content
§1. Modus ponens
§2. Abstraction and Form
§3. Use and Mention
§4. Statements, Statement Forms, and Bivalence
§5. Statements, Propositions, and Truth
§6. Modus ponens arguments in Langerese: Syntax
§7. Modus ponens arguments in Langerese: Semantics
§8. The Bed of Procrustes
Logical Operators
§9. The Counter-intuitiveness of the Arrow
§10. Conjunction and Material Equivalence
§11. Translating Conjunctions
§12. Non-Truth Functional Operators
§13. Negation and Disjunction
§14. Unless
§15. Necessary vs. Sufficient Conditions
§16. Translating Conditional and Biconditional Statements
§17. Fun with Longer Statements
Truth Tables
§18. Calculating Truth Values for Statements
§19. Tautologies
§20. Two Ways of Constructing Truth Tables
§21. Human Limitations
§22. Short Truth Tables for Tautologies
§23. The Anti-Laws of Logic
§24. Analyticity
§25. Testing for Logical Equivalence
§26. Quirks of Logical Equivalence
§27. Contradiction
§28. Logical Consistency
§29. How Many Logical Operators Do We Need?
Validity and Soundness
§30. Validity
§31. Validity’s Quirks
§32. Deductive Arguments
§33. Soundness
§34. Abbreviated Truth Tables for Validity
§35. Inductive Arguments
§36. Translation and Testing for Validity
§37. Logic, Rhetoric, and the Principle of Charity
How to Prove Stuff
§38. Natural Deduction
§39. Introduction Rules
§40. Other Inference Rules: HS and CD
§41. Conditional Proof
§42. Using Conditional Proof to Prove Tautologies
§43. Logical Equivalence and Replacement Rules
§44. Formalizing Philosophical Arguments
§45. Reductio Ad Absurdum
§46. Other Valid Arguments
Predicates and Quantifiers
§47. Chrysippus’s dog
§48. Subjects and Predicates
§49. Relations
§50. Individual Constants and Variables
§51. Interpreting the Quantifiers
§52. Modus ponens with the Universal Quantifier
§53. Modus ponens with the Existential Quantifier
§54. Putting Langerese to Work
§55. Quantifiers and Negation
§56. Translation Holism
§57. Some Technicalities
§58. Identity
§59. Form and Content: The Value of Formal Logic
Technical Definitions

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Derek D. Turner
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Fundamental Methods of Logic
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Fundamental Methods of Logic is suitable for a one-semester introduction to logic/critical reasoning course. It covers a variety of topics at an introductory level. Chapter One introduces basic notions, such as arguments and explanations, validity and soundness, deductive and inductive reasoning; it also covers basic analytical techniques, such as distinguishing premises from conclusions and diagramming arguments. Chapter Two discusses informal logical fallacies. Chapters Three and Four concern deductive logic, introducing the basics of Aristotelian and Sentential Logic, respectively. Chapter Five deals with analogical and causal reasoning, including a discussion of Mill's Methods. Chapter Six covers basic probability calculations, Bayesian inference, fundamental statistical concepts and techniques, and common statistical fallacies.

Reviews available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/fundamental-methods-of-logic

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Author:
Matthew Knachel
Date Added:
09/08/2017
General Philosophy Lectures
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A series of lectures delivered by Peter Millican to first-year philosophy students at the University of Oxford. The lectures comprise of the 8-week General Philosophy course, delivered to first year undergraduates. These lectures aim to provide a thorough introduction to many philosophical topics and to get students and others interested in thinking about key areas of philosophy. Taking a chronological view of the history of philosophy, each lecture is split into 3 or 4 sections which outline a particular philosophical problem and how different philosophers have attempted to resolve the issue. Individuals interested in the 'big' questions about life such as how we perceive the world, who we are in the world and whether we are free to act will find this series informative, comprehensive and accessible.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Full Course
Lecture
Provider:
University of Oxford
Provider Set:
University of Oxford Podcasts
Author:
Peter Millican
Date Added:
02/19/2010
Inferring and Explaining
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Inferring and Explaining is a book in practical epistemology. It examines the notion of evidence and assumes that good evidence is the essence of rational thinking. Evidence is the cornerstone of the natural, social, and behavioral sciences. But it is equally central to almost all academic pursuits and, perhaps most importantly, to the basic need to live an intelligent and reflective life.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Portland State University
Provider Set:
PDXOpen
Author:
Jeffery L. Johnson
Date Added:
12/05/2019
The Intelligent Troglodyte's Guide to Plato's Republic
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The Republic of Plato is one of the classic gateway texts into the study and practice of philosophy, and it is just the sort of book that has been able to arrest and redirect lives. How it has been able to do this, and whether or not it will be able to do this in your own case, is something you can only discover for yourself. The present guidebook aims to help a person get fairly deep, fairly quickly, into the project. It divides the dialogue into 96 sections and provides commentary on each section as well as questions for reflection and exploration. It is organized with a table of contents and is stitched together with a system of navigating bookmarks. Links to external sites such as the Perseus Classical Library are used throughout. This book is suitable for college courses or independent study.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Reading
Student Guide
Textbook
Provider:
Fort Hays State University
Provider Set:
FHSU Scholars Repository
Author:
Douglas Drabkin
Date Added:
01/01/2016
An Introduction to Formal Logic
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CC BY-SA
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forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading.

This books treats symbolization, formal semantics, and proof theory for each language. The discussion of formal semantics is more direct than in many introductory texts. Although forall x does not contain proofs of soundness and completeness, it lays the groundwork for understanding why these are things that need to be proven.

Throughout the book, I have tried to highlight the choices involved in developing sentential and predicate logic. Students should realize that these two are not the only possible formal languages. In translating to a formal language, we simplify and profit in clarity. The simplification comes at a cost, and different formal languages are suited to translating different parts of natural language.

The book is designed to provide a semester's worth of material for an introductory college course. It would be possible to use the book only for sentential logic, by skipping chapters 4-5 and parts of chapter 6.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: What is logic?
Chapter 2: Sentential logic
Chapter 3: Truth tables
Chapter 4: Quantified logic
Chapter 5: Formal semantics
Chapter 6: Proofs

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
P.D. Magnus
Date Added:
12/08/2020
An Introduction to Formal Logic
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
Rating

forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading.

This books treats symbolization, formal semantics, and proof theory for each language. The discussion of formal semantics is more direct than in many introductory texts. Although forall x does not contain proofs of soundness and completeness, it lays the groundwork for understanding why these are things that need to be proven.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
forall x
Author:
P.D. Magnus
Date Added:
01/01/2012
Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating

This is an introductory textbook in logic and critical thinking. The goal of the textbook is to provide the reader with a set of tools and skills that will enable them to identify and evaluate arguments. The book is intended for an introductory course that covers both formal and informal logic. As such, it is not a formal logic textbook, but is closer to what one would find marketed as a critical thinking textbook. Downloadable as a pdf file.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Lansing Community College
Author:
Matthew J. Van Cleave
Date Added:
01/04/2016
An Introduction to Philosophy
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The goal of this text is to present philosophy to newcomers as a living discipline with historical roots. While a few early chapters are historically organized, my goal in the historical chapters is to trace a developmental progression of thought that introduces basic philosophical methods and frames issues that remain relevant today. Later chapters are topically organized. These include philosophy of science and philosophy of mind, areas where philosophy has shown dramatic recent progress. This text concludes with four chapters on ethics, broadly construed. I cover traditional theories of right action in the third of these. Students are first invited first to think about what is good for themselves and their relationships in a chapter of love and happiness. Next a few meta-ethical issues are considered; namely, whether they are moral truths and if so what makes them so. The end of the ethics sequence addresses social justice, what it is for one’s community to be good. Our sphere of concern expands progressively through these chapters. Our inquiry recapitulates the course of development into moral maturity

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Bellevue College
Author:
W. Russ Payne
Date Added:
12/05/2019
Introduction to Philosophy
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Lumen Learning Introduction to Philosophy course covers Nature of Philosophy, Logic, Ethics, Metaphysics and Epistemology, and Philosophy of Religion.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Reading
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Introduction to Philosophy
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating

Philosophy is many things to many people and so writing a general introduction to philosophy textbook is bound to itself be an exercise in meta-philosophy. Because this is so, there will be disagreements not only about what is in the textbook, but also about what it leaves out. In the process of editing the chapters for this text, the philosophers in my department (Paul Jurczak, Christopher Schneck, and Leanne Kent) had occasion to hash out some of these disagreements. I believe the resulting textbook is better for it, not to mention that we as philosophers are all better for it. As will perhaps be obvious for those who read the textbook, the different chapters have very different styles. We consider this diversity a virtue of the textbook, although we understand that it does make it bit more unwieldy. For example, Paul and I have very different backgrounds in philosophy. Paul reads French very well and knows a lot about Merleau-Ponty; I read no French, but am fairly engaged with the cognitive sciences. Paul knows a lot about history, literature, and film; I don’t, but can tell you more than you’d like to know about what’s wrong with Jerry Fodor’s asymmetric dependence account of mental representation or why Saul Kripke’s causal account reference is important. As philosophers may infer based on these descriptions, I was schooled within the “analytic” tradition of philosophy, whereas Paul’s interests lie more within the “Continental” tradition of philosophy. These differences speak to the diversity of what philosophy is and they are reflected in this textbook.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Christopher Schneck
Douglas Sjoquist
Matthew Van Cleave
Paul Jurczak
Date Added:
12/08/2020
An Introduction to Philosophy
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC
Rating

The goal of this text is to present philosophy to newcomers as a living discipline with historical roots. While a few early chapters are historically organized, my goal in the historical chapters is to trace a developmental progression of thought that introduces basic philosophical methods and frames issues that remain relevant today. Later chapters are topically organized. These include philosophy of science and philosophy of mind, areas where philosophy has shown dramatic recent progress. This text concludes with four chapters on ethics, broadly construed. I cover traditional theories of right action in the third of these. Students are first invited first to think about what is good for themselves and their relationships in a chapter of love and happiness. Next a few meta-ethical issues are considered; namely, whether they are moral truths and if so what makes them so. The end of the ethics sequence addresses social justice, what it is for one’s community to be good. Our sphere of concern expands progressively through these chapters. Our inquiry recapitulates the course of development into moral maturity

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Bellevue College
Author:
W. Russ Payne
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Introduction to Philosophy
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
Rating

This course introduces students to the major topics, problems, and methods of philosophy and surveys the writings of a number of major historical figures in the field. Several of the core areas of philosophy are explored, including metaphysics, epistemology, political philosophy, ethics, and the philosophy of religion. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Identify and describe the major areas of philosophical inquiry, explain how those areas differ from and relate to one another, and place the views and arguments of major philosophical figures within those thematic categories; Use philosophical terminology correctly and consistently; Identify and describe the views of a number of major philosophers and articulate how these views are created in response to general philosophical problems or to the views of other philosophers; Explain the broad outlines of the history of philosophy as a framework that can be applied in more advanced courses; Identify strengths and weaknesses in the arguments philosophers have put forward for their views and formulate objections and counterarguments of your own invention; Apply critical thinking and reasoning skills in a wide range of career paths and courses of study. (Philosophy 101)

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Assessment
Full Course
Homework/Assignment
Lecture
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
06/14/2019
Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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We often make judgments about good and bad, right and wrong. Philosophical ethics is the critical examination of these and other concepts central to how we evaluate our own and each others' behavior and choices. This text examines some of the main threads of discussion on these topics that have developed over the last couple of millenia, mostly within the Western cultural tradition.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Christina Hendricks
Douglas Giles
Frank Aragbonfoh Abumere
George Matthews
Jeffrey Morgan
Joseph Kranak
Michael Klenk
Ya-yun Sherry
Date Added:
12/08/2020