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A Concise Introduction to Logic
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A Concise Introduction to Logic is an introduction to formal logic suitable for undergraduates taking a general education course in logic or critical thinking, and is accessible and useful to any interested in gaining a basic understanding of logic. This text takes the unique approach of teaching logic through intellectual history; the author uses examples from important and celebrated arguments in philosophy to illustrate logical principles. The text also includes a basic introduction to findings of advanced logic. As indicators of where the student could go next with logic, the book closes with an overview of advanced topics, such as the axiomatic method, set theory, Peano arithmetic, and modal logic. Throughout, the text uses brief, concise chapters that readers will find easy to read and to review.

Reviews available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/a-concise-introduction-to-logic

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
State University of New York
Provider Set:
OpenSUNY Textbooks
Author:
Craig DeLancey
Date Added:
03/27/2017
Ethics for A-Level
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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What does pleasure have to do with morality? What role, if any, should intuition have in the formation of moral theory? If something is ‘simulated', can it be immoral?

This accessible and wide-ranging textbook explores these questions and many more. Key ideas in the fields of normative ethics, metaethics and applied ethics are explained rigorously and systematically, with a vivid writing style that enlivens the topics with energy and wit. Individual theories are discussed in detail in the first part of the book, before these positions are applied to a wide range of contemporary situations including business ethics, sexual ethics, and the acceptability of eating animals. A wealth of real-life examples, set out with depth and care, illuminate the complexities of different ethical approaches while conveying their modern-day relevance.

This concise and highly engaging resource is tailored to the Ethics components of AQA Philosophy and OCR Religious Studies, with a clear and practical layout that includes end-of-chapter summaries, key terms, and common mistakes to avoid. It should also be of practical use for those teaching Philosophy as part of the International Baccalaureate.

Ethics for A-Level is of particular value to students and teachers, but Fisher and Dimmock's precise and scholarly approach will appeal to anyone seeking a rigorous and lively introduction to the challenging subject of ethics.

Reviews available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/ethics-for-a-level

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Open Book Publishers
Author:
Andrew Fisher
Mark Dimmock
Date Added:
12/05/2019
Ethics in America
Read the Fine Print
Educational Use
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This series uses the Socratic method to build analytical skills and examine ethical questions. The programs aim to sharpen moral reasoning without favoring a particular position by exploring ethical dilemmas in legal, political, medical, corporate, and military arenas. Panelists include Antonin Scalia, Faye Wattleton, and Peter Jennings. A video instructional series on ethics for college and high school classrooms and adult learners; 10 one-hour video programs, audiocassettes.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Lecture
Provider:
Annenberg Learner
Date Added:
01/01/1989
Form and Content: An Introduction to Formal Logic
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Derek Turner, Professor of Philosophy, has written an introductory logic textbook that students at Connecticut College, or anywhere, can access for free. The book differs from other standard logic textbooks in its reliance on fun, low-stakes examples involving dinosaurs, a dog and his friends, etc.

Outline
The Logic Sheet
Getting Rid of Content
§1. Modus ponens
§2. Abstraction and Form
§3. Use and Mention
§4. Statements, Statement Forms, and Bivalence
§5. Statements, Propositions, and Truth
§6. Modus ponens arguments in Langerese: Syntax
§7. Modus ponens arguments in Langerese: Semantics
§8. The Bed of Procrustes
Logical Operators
§9. The Counter-intuitiveness of the Arrow
§10. Conjunction and Material Equivalence
§11. Translating Conjunctions
§12. Non-Truth Functional Operators
§13. Negation and Disjunction
§14. Unless
§15. Necessary vs. Sufficient Conditions
§16. Translating Conditional and Biconditional Statements
§17. Fun with Longer Statements
Truth Tables
§18. Calculating Truth Values for Statements
§19. Tautologies
§20. Two Ways of Constructing Truth Tables
§21. Human Limitations
§22. Short Truth Tables for Tautologies
§23. The Anti-Laws of Logic
§24. Analyticity
§25. Testing for Logical Equivalence
§26. Quirks of Logical Equivalence
§27. Contradiction
§28. Logical Consistency
§29. How Many Logical Operators Do We Need?
Validity and Soundness
§30. Validity
§31. Validity’s Quirks
§32. Deductive Arguments
§33. Soundness
§34. Abbreviated Truth Tables for Validity
§35. Inductive Arguments
§36. Translation and Testing for Validity
§37. Logic, Rhetoric, and the Principle of Charity
How to Prove Stuff
§38. Natural Deduction
§39. Introduction Rules
§40. Other Inference Rules: HS and CD
§41. Conditional Proof
§42. Using Conditional Proof to Prove Tautologies
§43. Logical Equivalence and Replacement Rules
§44. Formalizing Philosophical Arguments
§45. Reductio Ad Absurdum
§46. Other Valid Arguments
Predicates and Quantifiers
§47. Chrysippus’s dog
§48. Subjects and Predicates
§49. Relations
§50. Individual Constants and Variables
§51. Interpreting the Quantifiers
§52. Modus ponens with the Universal Quantifier
§53. Modus ponens with the Existential Quantifier
§54. Putting Langerese to Work
§55. Quantifiers and Negation
§56. Translation Holism
§57. Some Technicalities
§58. Identity
§59. Form and Content: The Value of Formal Logic
Technical Definitions

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Derek D. Turner
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Fundamental Methods of Logic
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Fundamental Methods of Logic is suitable for a one-semester introduction to logic/critical reasoning course. It covers a variety of topics at an introductory level. Chapter One introduces basic notions, such as arguments and explanations, validity and soundness, deductive and inductive reasoning; it also covers basic analytical techniques, such as distinguishing premises from conclusions and diagramming arguments. Chapter Two discusses informal logical fallacies. Chapters Three and Four concern deductive logic, introducing the basics of Aristotelian and Sentential Logic, respectively. Chapter Five deals with analogical and causal reasoning, including a discussion of Mill's Methods. Chapter Six covers basic probability calculations, Bayesian inference, fundamental statistical concepts and techniques, and common statistical fallacies.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Author:
Matthew Knachel
Date Added:
09/08/2017
An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments
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This book is aimed at newcomers to the field of logical reasoning, particularly those who, to borrow a phrase from Pascal, are so made that they understand best through visuals. I have selected a small set of common errors in reasoning and visualized them using memorable illustrations that are supplemented with lots of examples. The hope is that the reader will learn from these pages some of the most common pitfalls in arguments and be able to identify and avoid them in practice.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Reading
Author:
Ali Almossawi
Date Added:
03/31/2021
The Intelligent Troglodyte's Guide to Plato's Republic
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The Republic of Plato is one of the classic gateway texts into the study and practice of philosophy, and it is just the sort of book that has been able to arrest and redirect lives. How it has been able to do this, and whether or not it will be able to do this in your own case, is something you can only discover for yourself. The present guidebook aims to help a person get fairly deep, fairly quickly, into the project. It divides the dialogue into 96 sections and provides commentary on each section as well as questions for reflection and exploration. It is organized with a table of contents and is stitched together with a system of navigating bookmarks. Links to external sites such as the Perseus Classical Library are used throughout. This book is suitable for college courses or independent study.

Subject:
Arts and Humanities
Philosophy
Material Type:
Reading
Student Guide
Textbook
Provider:
Fort Hays State University
Provider Set:
FHSU Scholars Repository
Author:
Douglas Drabkin
Date Added:
01/01/2016
An Introduction to Formal Logic
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CC BY-SA
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forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading.

This books treats symbolization, formal semantics, and proof theory for each language. The discussion of formal semantics is more direct than in many introductory texts. Although forall x does not contain proofs of soundness and completeness, it lays the groundwork for understanding why these are things that need to be proven.

Throughout the book, I have tried to highlight the choices involved in developing sentential and predicate logic. Students should realize that these two are not the only possible formal languages. In translating to a formal language, we simplify and profit in clarity. The simplification comes at a cost, and different formal languages are suited to translating different parts of natural language.

The book is designed to provide a semester's worth of material for an introductory college course. It would be possible to use the book only for sentential logic, by skipping chapters 4-5 and parts of chapter 6.

Table of Contents
Chapter 1: What is logic?
Chapter 2: Sentential logic
Chapter 3: Truth tables
Chapter 4: Quantified logic
Chapter 5: Formal semantics
Chapter 6: Proofs

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
P.D. Magnus
Date Added:
12/08/2020
An Introduction to Formal Logic
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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forall x is an introduction to sentential logic and first-order predicate logic with identity, logical systems that significantly influenced twentieth-century analytic philosophy. After working through the material in this book, a student should be able to understand most quantified expressions that arise in their philosophical reading.

This books treats symbolization, formal semantics, and proof theory for each language. The discussion of formal semantics is more direct than in many introductory texts. Although forall x does not contain proofs of soundness and completeness, it lays the groundwork for understanding why these are things that need to be proven.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
forall x
Author:
P.D. Magnus
Date Added:
01/01/2012
Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking
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This is an introductory textbook in logic and critical thinking. The goal of the textbook is to provide the reader with a set of tools and skills that will enable them to identify and evaluate arguments. The book is intended for an introductory course that covers both formal and informal logic. As such, it is not a formal logic textbook, but is closer to what one would find marketed as a critical thinking textbook. Downloadable as a pdf file.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Lansing Community College
Author:
Matthew J. Van Cleave
Date Added:
01/04/2016
An Introduction to Philosophy
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The goal of this text is to present philosophy to newcomers as a living discipline with historical roots. While a few early chapters are historically organized, my goal in the historical chapters is to trace a developmental progression of thought that introduces basic philosophical methods and frames issues that remain relevant today. Later chapters are topically organized. These include philosophy of science and philosophy of mind, areas where philosophy has shown dramatic recent progress.

This text concludes with four chapters on ethics, broadly construed. I cover traditional theories of right action in the third of these. Students are first invited first to think about what is good for themselves and their relationships in a chapter of love and happiness. Next a few meta-ethical issues are considered; namely, whether they are moral truths and if so what makes them so. The end of the ethics sequence addresses social justice, what it is for one’s community to be good. Our sphere of concern expands progressively through these chapters. Our inquiry recapitulates the course of development into moral maturity.

Over the course of the text I’ve tried to outline the continuity of thought that leads from the historical roots of philosophy to a few of the diverse areas of inquiry that continue to make significant contributions to our understanding of ourselves and the world we live in.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
W. Russ Payne
Date Added:
04/01/2021
Introduction to Philosophy
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Philosophy is many things to many people and so writing a general introduction to philosophy textbook is bound to itself be an exercise in meta-philosophy. Because this is so, there will be disagreements not only about what is in the textbook, but also about what it leaves out. In the process of editing the chapters for this text, the philosophers in my department (Paul Jurczak, Christopher Schneck, and Leanne Kent) had occasion to hash out some of these disagreements. I believe the resulting textbook is better for it, not to mention that we as philosophers are all better for it. As will perhaps be obvious for those who read the textbook, the different chapters have very different styles. We consider this diversity a virtue of the textbook, although we understand that it does make it bit more unwieldy. For example, Paul and I have very different backgrounds in philosophy. Paul reads French very well and knows a lot about Merleau-Ponty; I read no French, but am fairly engaged with the cognitive sciences. Paul knows a lot about history, literature, and film; I don’t, but can tell you more than you’d like to know about what’s wrong with Jerry Fodor’s asymmetric dependence account of mental representation or why Saul Kripke’s causal account reference is important. As philosophers may infer based on these descriptions, I was schooled within the “analytic” tradition of philosophy, whereas Paul’s interests lie more within the “Continental” tradition of philosophy. These differences speak to the diversity of what philosophy is and they are reflected in this textbook.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Christopher Schneck
Douglas Sjoquist
Matthew Van Cleave
Paul Jurczak
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics
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We often make judgments about good and bad, right and wrong. Philosophical ethics is the critical examination of these and other concepts central to how we evaluate our own and each others’ behavior and choices.

This text examines some of the main threads of discussion on these topics that have developed over the last couple of millenia, mostly within the Western cultural tradition. It considers basic questions about moral and ethical judgment: Is there such a thing as something that is really right or really wrong independent of time, place and perspective? What is the relationship between religion and ethics? How can we reconcile self-interest and ethics? Is it ever acceptable to harm one person in order to help others? What do recent discussions in evolutionary biology or have to say about human moral systems? What is the relation between gender and ethics? The authors invite you to participate in their exploration of these and many other questions in philosophical ethics.

If you are adopting or adapting this book for a course, please let us know on our adoption form for the Introduction to Philosophy open textbook series: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdwf2E7bRGvWefjhNZ07kgpgnNFxVxxp-iidPE5gfDBQNGBGg/viewform?usp=sf_link.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rebus Community
Author:
Christina Hendricks (Series Editor)
Douglas Giles
Frank Aragbonfoh Abumere
George Matthews (Book Editor)
Jeffrey Morgan
Joseph Kranak
Kathryn MacKay
Michael Klenk
Paul Rezkalla
Ya-Yun (Sherry) Kao
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics
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Table of Contents
1. Aren’t Right and Wrong Just Matters of Opinion? On Moral Relativism and Subjectivism
2. Can We Have Ethics without Religion? On Divine Command Theory and Natural Law Theory
3. How Can I Be a Better Person? On Virtue Ethics
4. What’s in it for Me? On Egoism and Social Contract Theory
5. Utilitarianism
6. Kantian Deontology
7. Feminism and Feminist Ethics
8. Evolutionary Ethics

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
George Matthews
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Introduction to Philosophy: Logic
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Introduction to Philosophy: Logic provides students with the concepts and skills necessary to identify and evaluate arguments effectively. The chapters, all written by experts in the field, provide an overview of what arguments are, the different types of arguments one can expect to encounter in both philosophy and everyday life, and how to recognise common argumentative mistakes.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Rebus Community
Author:
Ben Martin
Christina Hendricks
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Introduction to Philosophy: Logic
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Introduction to Philosophy: Logic provides students with the concepts and skills necessary to identify and evaluate arguments effectively. The chapters, all written by experts in the field, provide an overview of what arguments are, the different types of arguments one can expect to encounter in both philosophy and everyday life, and how to recognise common argumentative mistakes.

Table of Contents
1. What is Logic?
2. Evaluating Arguments
3. Formal Logic in Philosophy
4. Informal Fallacies
5. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

Access also available here: https://press.rebus.community/intro-to-phil-logic/

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Author:
Bahram Assadian
Benjamin Martin
Cassiano Terra Rodrigues
Christina Hendricks
Matthew Knachel
Michael Shaffer
Nathan Smith
Date Added:
12/08/2020
Logic: A Brief Introduction
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Welcome! This text is designed to introduce you to the basic concepts of logic and to develop your skills in applying these concepts.

To get started, perhaps I need to ask a very basic question, namely, “Why do we need to study logic anyway?” Now I know that you might be thinking that there is no need to study logic because everybody already knows what it means to be “logical” and what it means to be “illogical.” Indeed I have little doubt that the word “logic” is well entrenched in your vocabulary. Clearly, you know perfectly well what it means to say of someone, perhaps even of yourself, that he or she, is not very logical. I am also aware that you have some important models of what it means to be logical or illogical. For example, you probably associate “being logical” with someone like Mr. Spock (of Star Trek), who is portrayed as being guided more by logic than Captain Kirk, who is portrayed as all too human. You may take this contrast to put logic in a rather bad light. You might associate it with mechanistic, cold, robotic calculation and as opposed to human emotions and feelings.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Stetson University
Author:
Ronald L. Hall
Date Added:
04/01/2021
Logical Fallacies
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This website allows students to explore many common logical fallacies. There are some accompanying handouts to help students take notes and organize their ideas.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Activity/Lab
Date Added:
03/31/2021
Logic and Critical Thinking
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This course provides an introduction to critical thinking, informal logic, and a small amount of formal logic; its purpose is to provide students with the basic tools of analytical reasoning. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Understand what critical thinking is and why it is valuable; Distinguish between good and bad definitions, Recognize the differences between explicit and implicit meaning, and remove ambiguities of meaning from unclearly worded statements; Recognize arguments in writing, pick out good and bad arguments by their form, and construct sound arguments of their own; Diagnose the most common reasoning errors and fallacies, as well as identify ways of improving them; Understand the basics of sentential and predicate logic and gain practice manipulating meaning symbolically; Understand the rudiments of scientific methodology and reasoning; Evaluate arguments that rely on specific types of visual representation; Understand the basics of strategic reasoning and problem solving; Understand the particular challenges involved in reasoning about values and morality; Diagnose fallacies and evaluate arguments about values and morality. (Philosophy 102)

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Assessment
Full Course
Homework/Assignment
Lecture
Reading
Syllabus
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
06/14/2019
Metaethics from a First Person Standpoint: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy
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Metaethics from a First Person Standpoint addresses in a novel format the major topics and themes of contemporary metaethics, the study of the analysis of moral thought and judgement. Metathetics is less concerned with what practices are right or wrong than with what we mean by ‘right’ and ‘wrong.’
Looking at a wide spectrum of topics including moral language, realism and anti-realism, reasons and motives, relativism, and moral progress, this book engages students and general readers in order to enhance their understanding of morality and moral discourse as cultural practices. Catherine Wilson innovatively employs a first-person narrator to report step-by-step an individual’s reflections, beginning from a position of radical scepticism, on the possibility of objective moral knowledge. The reader is invited to follow along with this reasoning, and to challenge or agree with each major point. Incrementally, the narrator is led to certain definite conclusions about ‘oughts’ and norms in connection with self-interest, prudence, social norms, and finally morality. Scepticism is overcome, and the narrator arrives at a good understanding of how moral knowledge and moral progress are possible, though frequently long in coming.
Accessibly written, Metaethics from a First Person Standpoint presupposes no prior training in philosophy and is a must-read for philosophers, students and general readers interested in gaining a better understanding of morality as a personal philosophical quest.

Subject:
Philosophy
Material Type:
Textbook
Provider:
Open Book Publishers
Author:
Catherine Wilson
Date Added:
12/05/2019